Sylvain Billiard

Sylvain Billiard


Equipe Evo-Eco

Groupe : Evolutionary ecology and genetics across different scales

Unité Evo-Eco-Paléo (EEP) – UMR 8198
CNRS / Université de Lille – Sciences et Technologies
Batiment SN2, bureau 107
59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq – FRANCE
Tel : 33 (0)3-20-33-59-23


Mail :


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Thématiques de recherche :

  • Ecologie et Evolution des interactions intra- et inter-spécifiques
  • Interface Biologie – Mathématiques
  • Interface Biologie – Sciences Humaines

Mots clés :

  • Systèmes de reproduction, système d’auto-incompatibilité, sexes et dimorphisme sexuel, interactions plantes pollinisateurs
  • Evolution de la dominance et des interactions intra-génomiques
  • Démographie, fardeau de mutation et extinction des espèces à reproduction sexuée
  • Transferts horizontaux d’informations génétique et évolution de la culture
  • Modélisation probabiliste, changement d’échelles, modélisation microscopique

Enseignements :

  • Licence BOP : Evolution (les transitions évolutives majeures), relations entre biologie évolutive et sciences humaines (option)
  • M1 Master Ecologie : Ecologie des populations et des communautés, Introduction à R (programmation, analyse de données), Méthodes d’étude de l’évolution  (option)
  • M2 Master Ecologie : Modèles Linéaires Généralisés
  • Autres : Panorama de la biologie aujourd’hui (M2 Journalistes Scientifiques, Univ. de Lille), Introduction à l’écologie et la biologie évolutive (M2 MathsSV, Univ. d’Orsay)


Diffusion des connaissances :


Bref CV :

Parcours académique :

  • 2004 : Thèse (Univ. Montpellier 2)
  • 2004-2006 : Postdocs, ATER
  • 2006 – auj. : Maître de Conférences (Laboratoire EEP, Univ. Lille)
  • 2012 : Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches

Séjours transdiciplinaires :


Doctorants et post-doctorants :

Post-Doctorants :

Doctorants :


Projets en cours :


Collaborateurs :

Manuscrits soumis :

Durand, E., M. Chantreau, A. Leveve, R. Stetsenko, T. Lesaffre, C. Poux, M. Dubin, C. Roux, V. Llaurens, M. Genete, S. Billiard, X. Vekemans and Vincent Castric. Evolution of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae : lessons from a textbook example of natural selection.

Billiard S., M. Derex, L. Maisonneuve and T. Rey. Convergence of knowledge in a cultural evolution model with population structure, random social learning and credibility biases preprint

Fritsch, C., S. Billiard and N. Champagnat. Identifying conversion efficiency as a key mechanism underlying food webs evolution: A step forward, or backward?  preprint

Voinson, M., C. Smadi and S. Billiard. How does the community structure affect the epidemiological dynamics of emerging infectious diseases?

Lepers, C., S. Billiard, M. Porte, S. Méléard and C. Tran. Inference with selection, varying population size and evolving population structure: Application of ABC to a forward-backward coalescent process with interactions.  preprint

Publications :

Brom, T., V. Castric and  S. Billiard. Breakdown of gametophytic self-incompatibility in subdivided populations. Evolution (sous presse) preprint

Lesaffre, T. and  S. Billiard. The joint evolution of lifespan and self-fertilisation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology (sous presse) preprint and peer-reviewed and recommended by PCI Evol Biol

Billiard, S. and C. Smadi.  Stochastic dynamics of three competing clones: Conditions and times for invasion, coexistence and fixation.  The American Naturalist (sous press) preprint

Voinson M., A. Alvergne, S. Billiard and C. Smadi (2018) Stochastic dynamics of an epidemic with recurrent spillovers from an endemic reservoir. Journal of Theoretical Biology 457:37-50.

Billiard S., V. Bansaye and J.-R. Chazottes (2018). Rejuvenating functional responses with renewal theory. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 15:20180239.

Saumitou-Laprade, P., P. Vernet, A. Dowkiw, S. Bertrand, S. Billiard, B. Albert, P.-H. Gouyon and M. Dufay (2018) Polygamy or subdioecy?  The key impact of Diallelic Self-Incompatibility on the sexual system in Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society 285:20180004

Billiard, S. and A. Alvergne (2018). Stochasticity in cultural evolution: a revolution yet to happen.  History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40:9.

Abu Awad D. and S. Billiard.  (2017) The double edged sword: The demographic consequences of the evolution of self-fertilisation.  Evolution 71:1178-1190 (Article de vulgarisation associé, par la Grille Européenne de Calcul (EGI) : ).

Saumitou-Laprade, P., Vernet, P. Vekemans, X., Billiard, S., et al. (2017) Elucidation of the genetic architecture of self-incompatibility in olive: evolutionary consequences and perspectives for orchard management. Evolutionary Applications DOI:10.1111/eva.12457

Abu Awad D., S. Billiard and V. C. Tran. (2016) Perenniality induces high inbreeding depression in self-fertilising species. Theoretical Population Biology 112: 43-51.

Billiard, S., P. Collet, R. Ferrière, S. Méléard and V.C. Tran. (2016) The effect of competition and horizontal trait inheritance on invasion, fixation and polymorphism. Journal of Theoretical Biology 411: 48-58.

Billiard, S. and C. Smadi. (sous presse) The interplay of two mutations in a population of varying size: a stochastic eco-evolutionary model for clonal interference. Stochastic Processes and their Applications

Vernet, P., P. Lepercq, S. Billiard, A. Bourceaux, J. Lepart, D. Dommée, and P. Saumitou-Laprade. (2016) Evidence for the long-term maintenance of a rare self-incompatibility system in Oleaceae. New Phytologist 210: 1408-1417.

Voinson, M., S. Billiard and A. Alvergne (2015). Beyond rational decision-making: Modelling the influence of cognitive biases on the dynamics of vaccination coverage. PLoS ONE 10: e0142990.

V. Llaurens, M. Joron and S. Billiard (2015). Molecular mechanisms of dominance evolution in Müllerian mimicry. Evolution 69:3097-3108.

Van de Paer C., Saumitou-Laprade P., Vernet P. and Billiard S. (2015) The joint evolution and maintenance of self-incompatibility with androdioecy or gynodioecy. Journal of Theoretical Biology 371: 90-101

Chantreau, M., Chabbert, B., Billiard, S., Hawkins, S. and Neutelings, G.(2015) Functional analysis of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing. Plant Biotechnology Journal 13: 1312-1324.

Billiard, S., L. Husse, P. Lepercq, C. Godé, A. Bourceaux, J. Lepart, P. Vernet, P. Saumitou-Laprade. (2015) Selfish male-determining element favors the transition from hermaphroditism to androdioecy. Evolution 69: 683-693.

Billiard, S., R. Ferrière, S. Méléard and V.C. Tran. (2015) Stochastic dynamics of adaptive trait and neutral marker driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Journal of Mathematical Biology 71:1211-1242.

Castric, V., S. Billiard and X. Vekemans. 2014.  Trait transitions in explicit ecological and genomic contexts: Plant mating systems as case-studies, p:7-36 in C. Landry and N. Aubin-Horth (eds.), Ecological Genomics: Ecology and the Evolution of Genes and Genomes. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 781, Springer Science C Business Media Dordrecht

Durand, E., Meheust, R., Soucaze M., Goubet P., Gallina S., Poux, C., Fobis-Loisy I., Gaude T., Sarrazin A., Figeac M., Prat E., Marande W., Bergès H., Vekemans, X., Billiard, S., and Castric, V. (2014) Dominance hierarchy arising from a complex small RNA regulatory network. Science 346:1200-1205 .

Lepers, C., M. Dufay, and S. Billiard. (2014) How does pollination mutualism affect the evolution of prior self-fertilization? A model. Evolution 68: 3581-3598.

Gervais, C. , Abu Awad, D., Roze, D., Castric, V. and Billiard, S. (2014) Genetic architecture of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of gametophytic self-incompatibility. Evolution 68:3317-3324.

Cuvillier-Hot V., K. Salin, S. Devers, A. Tasiemski, P. Schaffner, R. Boulay, S. Billiard and A. Lenoir (2014). Impact of ecological doses of the most widespread phthalate on a terrestrial species, the ant Lasius niger. Environmental Research 131:104-110.

Abu Awad, D., S. Gallina, C. Bonamy and S. Billiard (2014). How the interaction between selection, demography and selfing affects population viability. PlOS One 9:e86125.

Llaurens, V., S. Billiard and M. Joron (2013). The effect of dominance on polymorphism in a Müllerian mimicry system. Journal of Theoretical Biology 337: 101-110

Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S., S. Billiard, S. Vuilleumier, E. Petit, M.E. Hood, and T. Giraud (2013) Evolutionary advantages and drawbacks of uni- versus bi-factoriality in mating type determinism. Heredity 111, 445-455

Husse, L., S. Billiard, J. Lepart, P. Vernet and P. Saumitou-Laprade (2013) A one locus model of androdioecy with two homomorphic self-incompatibility groups: expected vs. observed male frequencies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26:1269-1280.

Leducq, J.B., C. Siniarsky, C. Gosset, C. Godé, M. Poiret, B. Valentin, C. Blondel, C. Poux, N. Hautekeete, Y. Piquot, S. Billiard and X. Vekemans (2013) Intriguing small-scale spatial distribution of chloropastic and nuclear diversity in the endangered plant Biscutella neustriaca (Brassicaceae). Conservation Genetics 14:65-77.

Billiard, S., M. Lopez-Villavicencio, Hood, M., and T. Giraud (2012) Sex, outcrossing and mating types: Unsolved questions in fungi and beyond. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 1020-1038.

Billiard, S., and V.C. Tran (2012). A general stochastic model of the sporophytic self-incompatibility system. Journal of Mathematical Biology 64: 163-210.

Billiard, S. and Castric, V. (2011) Evidence for Fisher’s dominance theory: how many ‘special cases’? Trends in Genetics 11: 441-445.

Gervais, C., Castric, V., Ressayre, A., and Billiard S. (2011). Origin and diversification dynamics of self-incompatibility haplotypes. Genetics 88: 625-636.

Billiard, S., M. Lopez-Villavicencio, B. Devier, M. E. Hood, C. Fairhead, and T. Giraud (2011). Having sex, yes, but with whom? Inferences from fungi on the evolution of anisogamy and mating types. Biological Reviews 86: 421-442.

Leducq, J.B., C. Gosset, M. Poiret, F. Hendoux, X. Vekemans and S. Billiard (2010) An experimental study of the S-Allee effect in the self-incompatible Biscutella neustriaca (Brassicaceae). Conservation Genetics 11, 497-508.

Llaurens V., L. Gonthier, and S. Billiard (2009) The sheltered genetic load linked to the S-locus in plants: new insights from theoretical and empirical approaches in sporophytic self-incompatibility. Genetics 83: 1105-1118

Llaurens V., S. Billiard, V. Castric, and X. Vekemans (2009) Evolution of dominance in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems: I. Genetic load and co-evolution of levels of dominance in pollen and pistil. Evolution 63: 2427-2437

Chevin, L.M., S. Billiard, and F. Hospital (2008) Hitchhiking both ways: effect of two interfering selective sweeps on linked neutral variation. Genetics 180: 301-316.

Llaurens V., S. Billiard, J.B. Leducq, V. Castric, E.K. Klein, and X. Vekemans (2008) Does frequency-dependent selection with complex dominance interactions accurately predict allelic frequencies at the self-incompatibility locus in Arabidopsis halleri? Evolution 62:2545-2557

Billiard, S. (2008) NESSI: A program for numerical estimations in sporophytic self-incompatibility genetic systems. Molecular Ecology resources 8: 295-298.

Billiard S., V. Castric and X. Vekemans (2007). A general model to explore complex dominance patterns in plant sporophytic self-incompatibility systems. Genetics 175: 1351-1369.

Billiard S. and T. Lenormand. (2005). Evolution of migration under kin selection and local adaptation. Evolution 59: 13-23.

Billiard S., C. Faurie and M. Raymond (2005). Maintenance of handedness polymorphism in humans: A frequency-dependent selection model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 235: 85-93.

Faurie C., Schiefenhövel W., Le Bomin S., Billiard S. and Raymond M. (2005). Variability of the frequency of left-handedness in traditional societies. Current Anthropology 46: 142-147.

Rousset F. and S. Billiard (2000). A theoretical basis for measures of kin selection in subdivided populations: finite populations and localized dispersal. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 3: 814-825.