Evolution, Ecologie et Paléontologie
( Evo-Eco-Paléo )

Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 8198

Sylvain Billiard

Sylvain Billiard


Team Evo-Eco

Research Group : Écologie Évolutive et Reproduction

Unité Evo-Eco-Paléo (EEP) - UMR 8198
CNRS / Université de Lille - Sciences et Technologies
Batiment SN2, bureau 107
59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq - FRANCE
Tel : 33 (0)3-20-33-59-23


Mail : Sylvain.Billiard@univ-lille1.fr


Alternate Profiles





Research :

  • Ecology and evolution of interactions between and within species
  • Biology - Mathematics interface

Keywords :

  • Mating systems, self-incompatibility, sexes, sexual dimorphism
  • Evolution of dominance and within genome interactions
  • Plant-pollinator interactions
  • Demography, mutational load and extinction of sexual species
  • Horizontal transfers of genetic non-genetic informations
  • Stochastic modelling, scaling, microscopic to macroscopic modelling

Teaching :

  • Licence BOP : Evolution (major transitions), interactions between social sciences and evolutionary biology
  • M1 Master Ecologie : Population and community ecology, Introduction to R (programming, data analysis), Methods to study evolution
  • M2 Master Ecologie : Generalized Linear Models
  • Autres : An overview of biology today (M2 Science for journalists, Univ. de Lille), Introduction to ecology and evolutionary biology for mathematicians (M2 MathsSV, Univ. d'Orsay)


Brief CV :

Academics :

  • 2004 : PhD (Univ. Montpellier 2)
  • 2004-2006 : Postdoc, Assistant professor
  • 2006 - auj. : Lecturer (Laboratoire EEP, Univ. Lille)
  • 2012 : Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches

Transdiciplinary stays :


Docs et post-docs :

Post-Doctorants :

Doctorants :

Projets en cours :

Collaborateurs :

Publications :

Brom, T., V. Castric and  S. Billiard. Breakdown of gametophytic self-incompatibility in subdivided populations. BioRxiv https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/10/15/444125

Lesaffre, T. and  S. Billiard. The joint evolution of lifespan and self-fertilisation. BioRxiv https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/09/18/420877

Billiard, S. and C. Smadi.  Stochastic dynamics of three competing clones: Conditions and times for invasion, coexistence and fixation.  arXiv https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.04656

Voinson M., A. Alvergne, S. Billiard and C. Smadi (2018) Stochastic dynamics of an epidemic with recurrent spillovers from an endemic reservoir. Journal of Theoretical Biology 457:37-50.

Billiard S., V. Bansaye and J.-R. Chazottes (2018). Rejuvenating functional responses with renewal theory. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 15:20180239.

Saumitou-Laprade, P., P. Vernet, A. Dowkiw, S. Bertrand, S. Billiard, B. Albert, P.-H. Gouyon and M. Dufay (2018) Polygamy or subdioecy?  The key impact of Diallelic Self-Incompatibility on the sexual system in Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society 285:20180004

Billiard, S. and A. Alvergne (2018). Stochasticity in cultural evolution: a revolution yet to happen.  History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40:9.

Abu Awad D. and S. Billiard.  (2017) The double edged sword: The demographic consequences of the evolution of self-fertilisation.  Evolution 71:1178-1190 (Article de vulgarisation associé, par la Grille Européenne de Calcul (EGI) : https://www.egi.eu/use-cases/research-stories/self-fertilization/ ).

Saumitou-Laprade, P., Vernet, P. Vekemans, X., Billiard, S., et al. (2017) Elucidation of the genetic architecture of self-incompatibility in olive: evolutionary consequences and perspectives for orchard management. Evolutionary Applications DOI:10.1111/eva.12457

Abu Awad D., S. Billiard and V. C. Tran. (2016) Perenniality induces high inbreeding depression in self-fertilising species. Theoretical Population Biology 112: 43-51.

Billiard, S., P. Collet, R. Ferrière, S. Méléard and V.C. Tran. (2016) The effect of competition and horizontal trait inheritance on invasion, fixation and polymorphism. Journal of Theoretical Biology 411: 48-58.

Billiard, S. and C. Smadi. (in press) The interplay of two mutations in a population of varying size: a stochastic eco-evolutionary model for clonal interference. Stochastic Processes and their Applications

Vernet, P., P. Lepercq, S. Billiard, A. Bourceaux, J. Lepart, D. Dommée, and P. Saumitou-Laprade. (2016) Evidence for the long-term maintenance of a rare self-incompatibility system in Oleaceae. New Phytologist 210: 1408-1417.

Voinson, M., S. Billiard and A. Alvergne (2015). Beyond rational decision-making: Modelling the influence of cognitive biases on the dynamics of vaccination coverage. PLoS ONE 10: e0142990.

V. Llaurens, M. Joron and S. Billiard (2015). Molecular mechanisms of dominance evolution in Müllerian mimicry. Evolution 69:3097-3108.

Van de Paer C., Saumitou-Laprade P., Vernet P. and Billiard S. (2015) The joint evolution and maintenance of self-incompatibility with androdioecy or gynodioecy. Journal of Theoretical Biology 371: 90-101

Chantreau, M., Chabbert, B., Billiard, S., Hawkins, S. and Neutelings, G.(2015) Functional analysis of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing. Plant Biotechnology Journal 13: 1312-1324.

Billiard, S., L. Husse, P. Lepercq, C. Godé, A. Bourceaux, J. Lepart, P. Vernet, P. Saumitou-Laprade. (2015) Selfish male-determining element favors the transition from hermaphroditism to androdioecy. Evolution 69: 683-693.

Billiard, S., R. Ferrière, S. Méléard and V.C. Tran. (2015) Stochastic dynamics of adaptive trait and neutral marker driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Journal of Mathematical Biology 71:1211-1242.

Durand, E., Meheust, R., Soucaze M., Goubet P., Gallina S., Poux, C., Fobis-Loisy I., Gaude T., Sarrazin A., Figeac M., Prat E., Marande W., Bergès H., Vekemans, X., Billiard, S., and Castric, V. (2014) Dominance hierarchy arising from a complex small RNA regulatory network. Science 346:1200-1205 .

Castric, V., S. Billiard and X. Vekemans. 2014.  Trait transitions in explicit ecological and genomic contexts: Plant mating systems as case-studies, p:7-36 in C. Landry and N. Aubin-Horth (eds.), Ecological Genomics: Ecology and the Evolution of Genes and Genomes. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 781, Springer Science C Business Media Dordrecht

Lepers, C., M. Dufay, and S. Billiard. (2014) How does pollination mutualism affect the evolution of prior self-fertilization? A model. Evolution 68: 3581-3598.

Gervais, C. , Abu Awad, D., Roze, D., Castric, V. and Billiard, S. (2014) Genetic architecture of inbreeding depression and the maintenance of gametophytic self-incompatibility. Evolution 68:3317-3324.

Cuvillier-Hot V., K. Salin, S. Devers, A. Tasiemski, P. Schaffner, R. Boulay, S. Billiard and A. Lenoir (2014). Impact of ecological doses of the most widespread phthalate on a terrestrial species, the ant Lasius niger. Environmental Research 131:104-110.

Abu Awad, D., S. Gallina, C. Bonamy and S. Billiard (2014). How the interaction between selection, demography and selfing affects population viability. PlOS One 9:e86125.

Llaurens, V., S. Billiard and M. Joron (2013). The effect of dominance on polymorphism in a Müllerian mimicry system. Journal of Theoretical Biology 337: 101-110

Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S., S. Billiard, S. Vuilleumier, E. Petit, M.E. Hood, and T. Giraud (2013) Evolutionary advantages and drawbacks of uni- versus bi-factoriality in mating type determinism. Heredity 111, 445-455

Husse, L., S. Billiard, J. Lepart, P. Vernet and P. Saumitou-Laprade (2013) A one locus model of androdioecy with two homomorphic self-incompatibility groups: expected vs. observed male frequencies. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26:1269-1280.

Leducq, J.B., C. Siniarsky, C. Gosset, C. Godé, M. Poiret, B. Valentin, C. Blondel, C. Poux, N. Hautekeete, Y. Piquot, S. Billiard and X. Vekemans (2013) Intriguing small-scale spatial distribution of chloropastic and nuclear diversity in the endangered plant Biscutella neustriaca (Brassicaceae). Conservation Genetics 14:65-77.

Billiard, S., M. Lopez-Villavicencio, Hood, M., and T. Giraud (2012) Sex, outcrossing and mating types: Unsolved questions in fungi and beyond. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 1020-1038.

Billiard, S., and V.C. Tran (2012). A general stochastic model of the sporophytic self-incompatibility system. Journal of Mathematical Biology 64: 163-210.

Billiard, S. and Castric, V. (2011) Evidence for Fisher's dominance theory: how many 'special cases'? Trends in Genetics 11: 441-445.

Gervais, C., Castric, V., Ressayre, A., and Billiard S. (2011). Origin and diversification dynamics of self-incompatibility haplotypes. Genetics 88: 625-636.

Billiard, S., M. Lopez-Villavicencio, B. Devier, M. E. Hood, C. Fairhead, and T. Giraud (2011). Having sex, yes, but with whom? Inferences from fungi on the evolution of anisogamy and mating types. Biological Reviews 86: 421-442.

Leducq, J.B., C. Gosset, M. Poiret, F. Hendoux, X. Vekemans and S. Billiard (2010) An experimental study of the S-Allee effect in the self-incompatible Biscutella neustriaca (Brassicaceae). Conservation Genetics 11, 497-508.

Llaurens V., L. Gonthier, and S. Billiard (2009) The sheltered genetic load linked to the S-locus in plants: new insights from theoretical and empirical approaches in sporophytic self-incompatibility. Genetics 83: 1105-1118

Llaurens V., S. Billiard, V. Castric, and X. Vekemans (2009) Evolution of dominance in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems: I. Genetic load and co-evolution of levels of dominance in pollen and pistil. Evolution 63: 2427-2437

Chevin, L.M., S. Billiard, and F. Hospital (2008) Hitchhiking both ways: effect of two interfering selective sweeps on linked neutral variation. Genetics 180: 301-316.

Llaurens V., S. Billiard, J.B. Leducq, V. Castric, E.K. Klein, and X. Vekemans (2008) Does frequency-dependent selection with complex dominance interactions accurately predict allelic frequencies at the self-incompatibility locus in Arabidopsis halleri? Evolution 62:2545-2557

Billiard, S. (2008) NESSI: A program for numerical estimations in sporophytic self-incompatibility genetic systems. Molecular Ecology resources 8: 295-298.

Billiard S., V. Castric and X. Vekemans (2007). A general model to explore complex dominance patterns in plant sporophytic self-incompatibility systems. Genetics 175: 1351-1369.

Billiard S. and T. Lenormand. (2005). Evolution of migration under kin selection and local adaptation. Evolution 59: 13-23.

Billiard S., C. Faurie and M. Raymond (2005). Maintenance of handedness polymorphism in humans: A frequency-dependent selection model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 235: 85-93.

Faurie C., Schiefenhövel W., Le Bomin S., Billiard S. and Raymond M. (2005). Variability of the frequency of left-handedness in traditional societies. Current Anthropology 46: 142-147.

Rousset F. and S. Billiard (2000). A theoretical basis for measures of kin selection in subdivided populations: finite populations and localized dispersal. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 3: 814-825.